Verbals, help please!

[color=red]Identify the verbals (Participles, Gerunds or Infinitives) and their functions in the sentences below:-

1- Sarah and John were caught passing notes in class.
2- The horse galloped through the mountains moving with great speed.
3- By developing new products, the firm sold more and made more money.

Any help please?
Thanks very much!

In my opinion:

(1) What were Sarah and John caught doing? Passing notes in class. (“passing” = a gerund.)

(2) What was moving with great speed? The horse. ("moving = participle, which refers to the horse.)

(3) How did the firm sell more and make more money? By developing new products. (“developing” is a gerund because it is following a preposition.)

Dear James, I wonder whether you have made a mistake about “passing” in the first sentence. Isn’t it an indefinite participle?


The teacher caught them passing notes. “Passing notes” is a participial phrase modifying “them.” Passive: They were caught passing notes
(by the teacher). “Passing notes” is now a participial phrase being used as a subjective complement. You are 100% correct.