A sentence: His object is to do a good work among the people.
For WORK, when it’s plural, these are the senses:
eg They expanded the shipyards and started engineering works.
eg Raw materials were carried to the works by barge.
eg We went to the chip shop and had the works: fish, chips, gherkins, mushy peas.
But I just can’t see very clearly why A appears in the sentence, because WORK very often can stand alone. My only explanation is, when WORK refers to kind acts to help others, we say they are GOOD WORKS, but A WORK is really rare; do you agree?
“do a good work among the people” reads oddly to me. I believe you are quoting from a book written nearly a hundred years ago. It would be more usual nowadays to write “do good work” or “do good works”.
It is possible, but it really depends on the ongoing context as to whether or not that is right with what you are trying to say.
As a standalone sentence, it does not appear to be the best possibility.