highways or public transportation?

Thank you in advance,

Should governements spend more money on roeds and highways , or should governments spend more more money on improving public transportation?

We are living in a world that our ancestors could not even dreamt about. Modern technology has made the world a different place to live. With the rise of automobile and expansion of road and highway systems, two options became available for people; that are, whether to further develop public conveyance systems or to expand highways so as to make it possible to take the best advantage of private cars. Saving non-renewable natural resources, creating a healthier and friendlier society are reasons which can underline the significance of the development of public transportation systems.

It is hard to ignore the negative impacts of fuel consumption on the air pollution. According to the Congressional Subcommittee on environmental preservation, two-thirds of the toxic gases in metropolises throughout the world are direct byproducts of oil consumed in automobiles. This clarifies the point why the governments should look for the means to decrease the rate of oil consumption in countries. The less fuel is used up, the less air pollution would be brought about. Another point to keep in mind is the relatively important effect of public transportation in improving a healthy society. Researchers have suggested that skeletal problems as well obesity are less likely to occur in the societies where people are used to take the advantage of public transportation rather than driving their pwn cars directly to the destination. As it has been stated, more activity such as running or walking to the bus station is needed when citizens use some type of public transportation systems; therefore, they will be less susceptible to illnesses which are attributable to physical inactivity. Nothing can be more effective in creating a healthy community than the advancement in transportation systems.

A further point to keep in mind is the vital role of public conveyance in increasing the sense of community. Cars tend to isolate people from each other, while this is opposite for public transportation. Moreover, according to a psychological survey conducted in the University of Chicago, there is a reverse relationship between the level to which citizens feel comfortable in a community and the extent to which people have interpersonal and communicative links throughout that society, emphasizing the key role of public transportation in improving a friendly and a more comfortable society.

Nowadays, a very hot topic among policy makers is looking for the ways to restore and preserve non-renewable resources including gasoline and oil, which are the major source of energy in vehicles. One outcome of improving public conveyance would definitely be preserving natural resources and pass them to the following generations. Non-renewable resources are considered national treasure of the earth and should be preserved as much as possible to meet the future generations needs.

All in all, an effective way to create a healthy society where people can live in comfort is developing public transportation. People should be educated on the value of the fuel as a national wealth of the earth and should be encouraged to take public transportation into consideration as their primary priority in travelling.

TOEFL listening lectures: A lecture from a life sciences class