The system of higher education had its origin in Europe in the Middle Ages, when the first universities were established. In modern times the nature of higher education around the world has been largely determined by the models established in influential countries such as France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. Both France and Germany have systems of higher education that are basically administered by state agencies. Entrance requirements for students are also similar in both countries. In France an examination called the baccalauréat is given at the end of secondary education. Higher education in France is free and open to all students who have passed this examination. A passing mark admits students to a preparatory first year at a university, which terminates in another, more rigorous examination. Success in this examination allows students to attend universities for another three or four years until they have attained the first university degree, called a licence in France.
Basic differences, however, distinguish these two countries’ systems. French educational districts, called académies, are under the direction of a rector, an appointee of the national government who also is in charge of the university in each district. The uniformity in curriculum throughout the country leaves each university with little to distinguish itself. Hence, many students prefer to go to Paris, where there are better accommodations and more cultural amenities for students. Another difference is the existence in France of higher-educational institutions known as grandes écoles, which provide advanced professional and technical training. Most of these schools are not affiliated with the universities, although they too recruit their students by giving competitive examinations to candidates who possess a baccalauréat. The various grandes écoles provide a rigorous training in all branches of applied science and technology, and their diplomas have a somewhat higher standing than that of the ordinary licence.
In Germany, a country made up of what were once strong principalities, the regional universities have autonomy in determining their curriculum under the direction of rectors elected from within. Students in Germany change universities according to their interests and the strengths of each university. In fact, it is a custom for students to attend two, three, or even four different universities in the course of their undergraduate studies, and the majority of professors at a particular university may have taught in four or five others. This marked degree of mobility means that schemes of study and examination are marked by a freedom and individuality unknown in France.
France and Germany have greatly influenced higher education systems around the world. The French, either through colonial influence or the work of missionaries, introduced many aspects of their system in other countries. The German were the first to stress the importance of universities as research facilities and they also created a sense of them as emblems of a national mind.
Question 35. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. The nature of education around the world in modern times
B. Systems of higher education in France and Germany
C. The origin of higher education system in Europe
D. The influence of France and Germany on educational systems of other countries
My option is B
Question 36. The word “uniformity” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ______.
A. proximity B. discrepancy C. similarity D. uniqueness
My option is C
Question 37. The word “their” in paragraph 3 refers to ______.
A. schools B. universities C. examinations D. branches
My option is A
Question 38. Which of the following about grandes écoles in France is NOT stated in paragraph 3?
A. Most of them have no connection with universities.
B. They have a reputation for advanced professional and technical training.
C. Their degrees are better recognized than those provided by universities.
D. They offer better accommodations and facilities than universities.
My option is B
Question 39. According to the passage, a regional university rector in Germany is elected by
A. the staff of the university B. the national government officials
C. the regional government officials D. the staff of other universities
My option is A
Question 40. According to paragraph 4, what makes it possible for students in Germany to attend
different universities during their undergraduate studies?
A. The university staff have become far more mobile and occupied.
B. The university’s training programs offer greater flexibility and freedom of choice.
C. University tuition fees are kept at an affordable level for all students.
D. Entry requirements to universities in Germany are made less demanding.
Question 41. The word “emblems” in the final paragraph is closest in meaning to ______.
A. representatives B. directions C. structures D. delegates
My option is A
Question 42. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A. Studying in France and Germany is a good choice for people of all ages and nationalities.
B. It normally takes longer to complete a university course in France than in Germany.
C. Universities in Germany can govern themselves more effectively than those in France.
D. The level of decentralization of higher education is greater in Germany than in France.
I’m really confused with this question. A or D.