The reading passage:
Considerable research has been done on how people behave in groups. Within this research, certain aspects of group behavior that have been described are (1) the deindividualization that takes place in groups and (2) the polarization that takes place in groups.
Researchers have noted that, when people are working in groups, the process of deindividualization often takes place. When people are in large groups, they tend to lose their individuality and self-awareness, and they may engage in behavior within the group that they would never do individually as a result of the anonymity that they feel as a member of the group rather than as an individual. Antisocial behavior can occur in this type of situation when a normally well-behaved individual becomes part of the group and takes part in activities such as rowdiness or vandalism. The violence by fans that occurs during and after sporting events is often fueled by deindividualistic behavior by groups of fans.
Another phenomenon that occurs when people get together in groups is polarization. When people who are fairly like-minded are together in a group, they tend to arrive at decisions that are far more extreme than any individual in the group might have come up with alone. One example of group polarization might be a jury of citizens who are fed up with petty crime and decide to throw the book at a criminal charged with only a minor crime. Another example of group polarization might be a town council made up of members who are fed up with littering and who pass a law mandating jail time for people who litter.
The listening passage:
Other examples of these phenomena of group behavior can be provided. In regard to the deindividualization that occurs in groups, it’s quite true that people in large groups tend to lose their individuality and self-awareness and behave in ways that they normally would not if they were alone, and this type of behavior is known as deindividualistic behavior. This deindividualism can lead to prosocial behavior; deindividualistic behavior is not always antisocial. One example of prosocial deindividualistic behavior might be what can occur during a period of shared emotional pain after some sort of cataclysmic event when people band together as a group and take part in an outpouring of kindness as a group that they might not have taken part in individually. Another example of prosocial deindividualistic behavior might take place after an exciting contest that an underdog wins, when the audience members who are extraordinarily pleased at the results get caught up in an overwhelming display of approval, far more than any individual would display alone.
In regard to the polarization that takes place in groups, it’s quite true that when like-minded people get together in a group, it’s quite common for them to arrive at a decision that is far more extreme than a decision that any of the members of the group would have arrived at individually, and this type of behavior is known as polarization. This polarization doesn’t always have to lead to antisocial behavior; it can also lead to prosocial behavior. One example of polarization that leads to prosocial behavior is the actions of a group of townspeople who, after suffering individually for years at the hands of the town bully, finally band together to rid the town of the bully. Another example of polarization that leads to prosocial behavior is a group of employees, who have suffered individually for years under a horrible and sadistic boss, who band together as a group to deal with the boss.
The question: How does the information in the listening passage support what is presented in the reading passage?
In this set of materials, the reading passage describes two characteristics of group behavior which are deindividualization and polarization, and provides anti-social examples of them. While on the other hand, the listening passage supports the information in the reading passage by providing pro-social examples of these two characteristics.
The reading passage describes deindividualization as people’s tendency to lose their individuality and self-awareness when they are in large groups. The author provides a number of anti-social examples of deindividualization such as rowdiness, vandalism, or fans violence. However, the listening passage provides pro-social examples of deindividualization; a group of people sharing emotional pain or when audience members are extremely pleased for the victory of an underdog.
The reading passage also describes polarization which occurs when like-minded people are together in a group, so they come up with decision that any individual in the group would not come up with alone. The author exemplifies anti-social polarization by a polarized jury or a town council who assign jail time for anyone who litters. In contrast, the speaker provides pro-social examples of polarization such as a group of townspeople banding together to get rid of the town’s bully, or a group of employees working together to make an end for their boss’s bad actions.
I believe that I did this integrated writing passage before, but you never corrected it.
Anyway thanks in advance.
TOEFL listening discussions: A conversation between a student and a university service representative