What parts of speech are "about" and "going"?

Hi dear teachers!
What parts of speech are the following underlined words? Are these modal verbs that show future like will? Please explain…

1- The train is about to leave.
2- She is going to buy a car.

Thanks a million
Dawood

about - adverb
to be going to is a verbal phrase expressing future

If about is an adverb, what kind of adverb is it? Also, what is “to leave” then?
Also, does the word ‘going’ have its identification here i.e. is it an adjective, or noun or what? In sentence ‘I’m reading a story’ am reading is also a verbal phrase but that is present simple and this isn’t. So, what’s the difference then?

[quote=“Dawoodusmani”]

If about is an adverb, what kind of adverb is it? [color=darkred]I have no idea, but my dictionary says it is an adverb:
about
Adverb
8. about to on the point of; intending to: she was about to get in the car
9. not about to determined not to: we’re not about to help her out
thefreedictionary.com/about

Also, what is “to leave” then? [color=darkred]a verb

Also, does the word ‘going’ have its identification here i.e. is it an adjective, or noun or what? [color=darkred]“To go” is a verb, “to be going to” is a verbal phrase indicating future. “Going” in this sentence is a part of a verbal phrase “she is going to.”

If about is an adverb, what kind of adverb is it? [color=darkred]I have no idea, but my dictionary says it is an adverb:
about
Adverb
8. about to on the point of; intending to: she was about to get in the car
9. not about to determined not to: we’re not about to help her out
thefreedictionary.com/about

Also, what is “to leave” then? [color=darkred]a verb A verb? Infinitives are not verbs. Are they? They are verb-nouns. They function just as nouns in becoming subjects, objects, complements and so on.Don’t they? What is this confusion? The more I study English, the deeper I go into the grammar the more confused I am. I think English doesn’t have authentic and perminent rules.

They are. As far as I know.

infinitive — a form of the verb which in most languages is not inflected for tense or person and is used without a particular subject: in English, the infinitive usually consists of the word to followed by the verb
[size=75]Collins Essential English Dictionary 2nd Edition 2006 © HarperCollins Publishers 2004, 2006[/size]

“The more I study English, the deeper I go into the grammar the more confused I am. I think English doesn’t have authentic and perminent rules.”

Hurrah, someone finally sees through all of this grammar bull****.
Say it like it is. Keep it simple!

Well said Dawoodusmani, join the gang. We are call “The Confused.”

Kitos.

Hi,

I’d like to come in here and try to clear away some of the ‘confusion’ referred to above. There are two important points I would like to make. English is a very versatile language. What today you thought was a noun becomes a verb tomorrow. This very morning I heard someone using ‘trend’ as a verb. Up until a few hours ago ‘trend’ to me had always meant something along the lines of ‘fashion’ ‘tendency’ ‘pattern’ and so on. But now I hear someone saying something like: This attitude trends among the younger generation, which I suppose means that this attitude is fashionable among the younger generation. Fine, Ill get used to the new use and maybe, though I doubt it, I might even use it myself. The point I’m making is that you can get away with murder in the things you can do with English, which would be unthinkable in other European languages. Then there are those words that have split personalities and quite legitimately can have dual personalities (even triple ones, too) like the word ‘about’ that can be both adverb and preposition and also link up with ‘be’ and create a verb form as in: The train is about to leave the station. This versatility should be valued and enjoyed. My second point is that you should never start with grammar when you begin learning English. Grammar is there as a guide when you want something interpreted or explained. Take other forms of expression aside from language such as art and music. You can enjoy a painting without knowing anything about the subject matter or the painter. You can also be confused about a painting because you don’t really know what’s going on.Then you turn to the grammarian equivalent, the critic and see what he has to say. You may love a piece of music or you may be listening to a piece that leaves you totally bewildered and the grammarian figure becomes the conductor.
My message is that you should never be a slave to grammar. Much better to regard it like a railway timetable. In the meantime sit back and enjoy the ride.

Alan

Hello Alan,
It’s surprising to hear that you’d always thought of the word “trend” as being exclusively a noun. The verb “to trend” has been in use in American English for quite some time. It can be found in the 1828 version of Webster’s Dictionary, for example. You might find the etymology of the word “trend” interesting:
etymonline.com/index.php?sea … hmode=none

As is generally the case with words, usage and meaning of the word “trend” have evolved. I’d estimate that the verb “to trend” has been a staple in the world of business for at least 20 years now, particularly when talking about facts and figures – e.g. when talking about whether sales are trending up or down. However, as you’ve now discovered, the use of the verb “trend” is not restricted to business contexts. Even though the word “trend” is quite commonly used as a noun, the use of “trend” as a verb is not actually anything new.
:wink:
[color=darkblue]_________________________
[size=84]“It’s not disastrous, but it suggests pretty sluggish growth. The state unemployment rate has pretty much trended upward since May.” ~ Jason Bram[/size]

If about is an adverb, what kind of adverb is it?

From Oxford English Dictionary:
Adv,
At the very point when one is going to do something; intending or preparing immediately to do something.

We know about is a temporal adverb.

Also, what is “to leave” then?
“to leave” is a non-finite clause functioning here as an adverbial premodified by temporal adverb “about”, in order to express the meaning of purpose.

The train is about to leave is a pattern of Subject (the train)+ Verb (is) +Adverbial(=Adverb (about) + infinitive clause (to leave)). Compare,
I am about to tell you the truth.

Definition of non-finite clause:
A clause which has a non-finite verb phrase. Non-finite clauses are subdivided into
(a) infinitive clauses, (b) -ing clauses and © -ed clauses. For example:

(a) This is the best way [to serve dressed crab].
(b) They have an odd way of [serving dressed crab].
© The dressed crab [served in this restaurant] is excellent.

Non-finite clauses are normally subordinate clauses. They are
treated as clauses because they have elements such as subject,
verb, object and adverbial. However, as in the examples above,
although its meaning is implied, the subject of a non-finite clause
is usually omitted.

Thanks a million. You’ve been very very helpful. Nobody has yet been able to answer me the way you did. This is really awesome. You are great and have a wonderful command in grammar.
I’m now totally satisfied. May God bless you!

“Much better to regard it like a railway timetable. In the meantime sit back and enjoy the ride.”

Does that mean totally unreliable, unpredictable, and without any sense of reality Alan?

Kitos. :slight_smile: :slight_smile:
ps. Alan, I think we are both getting far too old for all this trending. Time to call it a day.

pps. Where would “these guys” be without their Oxford dictionaries? :lol: :lol: :lol: