verb + up, on, off, away, at,...

One of my bigest impediments in learning english is that when a verb is added one of these “prepositions”, his meaning often changes completely. I wonder if these adds obey to some rules?
Ex: Give: “donner” in french
Give up: “abandonner” in french.
Give in: “céder” in french.

How could I understand the meaning of (verb+preposition) from the meaning of (the verb) only? Are there any rules for each preposition?
Thank you!


You could look at:

or this:


oh, great!
Thank you Alan for the help!