Market participants can now swap Japanese yen for Chinese yuan without having to use the US dollar as an intermediary currency.
Market participants can now swap Japanese yen for Chinese yuan without using the US dollar as an intermediary currency.
In second sentence I replaced [size=150]having to use[/size] with using. Does it give same sense ? If yes, what is the mean of using having in first sentence?
“without having to use” means “without needing to use” or “without being required to use”. In this case, because of the overall context of the sentence, there is not a great deal of difference between “having to use” and “using”.
I really liked your question because it forced me to think very hard.
I think (repeat: think) that “having to” would be appropriate if you were emphasizing the past.
Here is my example. It is not very good, but I think that it gives you the idea.
Before the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, people in American airports could board an airplane without having to take off their clothes.
Now, however, you cannot board an airplane without taking off your clothes.