"the simple past" vs "the present perfective"

1.We learned enough to pass the test.
2.We have learned enough to pass the test.

In (1), Is the test over? Did the “We” pass it?
In (2), Is the test over or still to come? Did the “We” pass it?
All in one, what’s the difference between the two? And when should I use (1) or (2)?

Thanks very much.

Hi edison_chen_e_c,

‘We learned’ as past simple refers only to the past and suggests that the test also belongs to the past. The learning and the passing or not passing the test both refer to the past. ‘We have learned’ suggests learning lasted from the time we started until now and also indicates that we are going to take the test at some time in the future.


But neither indicates that the test was/has been/will be passed. ‘To pass’ merely indicates a timeless potential.

Thanks, I’ve got it.