says and said

1st Question:When do you use says and said?

2nd Question:Then,do these 2 sentences have the same meaning?

1st Sentence:John said he was frustrated with himself
2nd Sentence:John says he is frustrated with himself


Says = present tense
said = past tense

So in your 1st sentence, John made this comment at an earlier time. In the 2nd sentence it is part of the conversation currently taking place/ he is saying it now.

But why do i see newspapers writing

David Beckham says England will win the world cup?

Because that is his current opinion.

Hi Mr_Kong_19,

The Simple Present is often used in what is called the historic present where what is said remains ‘true’ all the time. This makes something appear more vivid/actual as in: In his play, King Lear Shakespeare says that his daughters are ungrateful.


Alan I still dont understand what you mean.
Could you understand in a simpler manner?


We can use the present simple when we are describing something in the past to make it seem more interesting/alive/actual. Look at this:

I was sitting in the restaurant when this man comes up to my table and tries to sell me a watch.


We use the simple present for many reasons, one of these reasons is when we believe that something is true as for example when you said Crystal defines linguistics as …………………… . Here we use the simple present because what is said is considered true all over the world. Same thing is true for TV reports and titles in newspapers.