says and said

1st Question:When do you use says and said?

2nd Question:Then,do these 2 sentences have the same meaning?

1st Sentence:John said he was frustrated with himself
2nd Sentence:John says he is frustrated with himself

Thanks!

Says = present tense
said = past tense

So in your 1st sentence, John made this comment at an earlier time. In the 2nd sentence it is part of the conversation currently taking place/ he is saying it now.

But why do i see newspapers writing

David Beckham says England will win the world cup?

Because that is his current opinion.

Hi Mr_Kong_19,

The Simple Present is often used in what is called the historic present where what is said remains ‘true’ all the time. This makes something appear more vivid/actual as in: In his play, King Lear Shakespeare says that his daughters are ungrateful.

Alan

Alan I still dont understand what you mean.
Could you understand in a simpler manner?
Thanks!

Hi,

We can use the present simple when we are describing something in the past to make it seem more interesting/alive/actual. Look at this:

I was sitting in the restaurant when this man comes up to my table and tries to sell me a watch.

Alan

Hi,
We use the simple present for many reasons, one of these reasons is when we believe that something is true as for example when you said Crystal defines linguistics as …………………… . Here we use the simple present because what is said is considered true all over the world. Same thing is true for TV reports and titles in newspapers.

Hadeer