misleading use

Dear Sir,
Please, tell me the type of each of the bold typed words:
1- The earliest civilizations based on complex agriculture developed on the Nile and Tigris rivers. (past simple or adj.?)
2- Two factories produced the pipe, using cement and other materials. (gerund?)
3- It was a construction of 1900 km of concrete pipe stretched from north to south. (past simple or adj?)
4- Even when recovered, they can not do heavy manual work. (passive or adj.?)
5- Dry-farming areas need fertilization. (gerund or adj.?)
6- Alternating strips should be fertilized first. (gerund or adj.?)
7- Aphids were starred for two hrs,transferred to infected broad bean ,and moved to healthy broad bean.(if passive, where are the aux. verbs?)
8- The leaves were washed with water. (in the passive can with be used in place of by ?)

Thank you so much