I have to... I am under compulsion. I am compelled/forced.

Hi teachers,

  1. After he hurt his ankle it began to swell up. Doesn’t it need a comma after “ankle”?

  2. I read some different examples of “swell” and noticed that the word “begin” was used before it.
    His arm was beginning to swell up. Is it also correct to say “his arm was swelling up.”?

  3. Q: Why do you go there?
    Ans: I have to… I am under compulsion. I am compelled/forced. Are these answers correct?

  1. The sentence is acceptable with or without a comma.

  2. They are both correct. “begin to…” can be used with almost any verb, but “swell” is a perfectly good verb by itself too.

  3. “I am compelled/forced to” seems more usual. Otherwise, they are all possible, but “I have to” is more colloquial, and “I am under compulsion” is rather elaborate and formal.

Thank you, Sir Dozy.