Compound sentences

Hello Teachers,

I’m having troubles to understand compound, complex and compound-complex sentences. Would you be kind to help me to understand them? I mean, give me some tips on how to make an easy approaching onto this matter.



Dear Jay,

Constant use of short sentences can be a bit strange to read. That’s why you can join sentences using special words called 'conjunctions.

For example you can say:
‘I like tea. I don’t like coffee’. Instead of making two separate sentences you can create a compound sentence like this: ‘I like tea but I don’t like coffee.’

There are seven words that are the most common conjunctions - they are the magnificent seven!
and, although, as, because, but, if, or

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples:

My boss called me last night. I didn’t answer the phone.
My boss called me last night, but I didn’t answer the phone.
Although my boss called me last night, I didn’t answer the phone.

There is much more to simple, compound, complex and compound-complex sentences so it’s best you give us the sentence you don’t understand.
What do you think?[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: A kickboxer is practising[YSaerTTEW443543]

Dear Torsten,

Thanks for your attention!

I have with me, a calendar that provides some information on how to keep up a healthy bird. On each aviary’s page is one tip, so this is one:

“Good Grooming is important to maintain a healthy bird. Be sure to have bird’s wings, beak, and toenails trimmed.”

Could that be considered a simple one because it does not have the conjunction?

Dear Jay,

In my opinion your two sentences are simple sentences containing infinitive constructions.[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: A game of tennis[YSaerTTEW443543]

Sounds like it has infinite possibilities to look at…

Would you like to give some other examples of infinite contructions?

Dear Jay,

As you pointed out, there are many ways the infinitive can be used in the English language. Here are some of them:

After numerals like the first, the last and the only or after superlatives.
My friend was the first person to offer me help.

After ‘too + adjective/adverb’ or ‘adj./adv. + enough’.
It is too early to go home.
We left early enough to catch the evening news.

‘Object + infinitives’ after verbs of causing, allowing, wishing and their opposites like:
to advise, to allow, to ask, to beg, to permit, to require, to want, to wish,
I want you to call your father.
She didn’t allow him to leave the room.
They expected him to finish the translation in 30 minutes.[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: The pyramids[YSaerTTEW443543]

Your explanations were infinitely sweet…

Probably, it is a bit off topic, but I may ask you:

English language has an enormous potential in it. How do you see the fact that all the Nations in the world will have to transform its native’s characteristic in order to follow up with the demands from English language; how, this near future, will affects people?

Dear Jay,

English is a means of international communication and the more people who use it the better.
Communicating in English you still can preserve your national and cultural traditions and habits. When you learn English you will get a better understanding of your mother tongue and you will exposed to a greater variety of opinions and views on all kinds of topics. You can exchange your experiences and ideas with people who might have a completely different approach to a certain issue and this will broaden your horizon. As long as you use your knowledge wisely the English language will be a powerful tool for you.[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: A shipyard[YSaerTTEW443543]

Dear Torsten,

Interesting! I find this communication language a complex matter. Although the English language originates from Britain, is America that is making it an international issue, and in some degree using it as controlling tool. No that I’m seeing it as threat for human civilization, but somewhat, a mechanism that permits to control and articulate all kinds of information.

Do you have information about any book or Link on the Internet, that deeply or lightly approaches these Social Changes? And of course, your views are very much appreciated.

Dear Jay,

Yes you right - the issue you mentioned is very interesting indeed as it covers a wide range of aspects.
On the one hand the influence of the US version of (especially spoken) English is undeniable. On the other hand though you will find that every English speaking nation has their own cultural and social heritage which will not vanish because of globalization and internationalization.
Interestingly enough there soon will be more speakers of English as a second language than there will be native English speakers. The question is what kind of English will those people speak. I have written a short article that deals with some of those questions, you can read it here:[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: The oil rig[YSaerTTEW443543]

Dear Torsten,

Thanks for your reply and please, excuse me for not promptly reply you.

Your approach on this matter is very interesting. You make me see and feel if avalanches of ESL speakers are coming from all over the world towards a small Valley known as English Speaking Countries. What will happen to this language anyways? From the time of Shakespeare to nowadays, English language has been adapting, readapting and changing its real form and characteristics. Probably, in the next 25 to 35 years, English will suffer so many more changes that it will no longer be called English anymore, and the native speakers will have to learn something like TIL (“The International Language”.), or whatever the New Language will conceive as a worldwide way of communication.

Dear Jay,

I’m sure the English language will develop and grow even further and I don’t think that it will ‘suffer’ from changes but the opposite will be the case - it will absorb even more vocabulary and become even richer than it already is. Please, bear in mind that a language always reflects the culture, mentality and knowledge of its speakers and the more diverse and sophisticated they are the better it is for their language.[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: The oil refinery[YSaerTTEW443543]

Dear Torsten,

I do appreciate your views about this matter, but I still have some concerns about the future of a Language, as you said, that is constantly influenced by others. How will be possible for a Language to survive in it’s integrity in such a hostile environment ?

So please, keep in mind also, how English was spoken some centuries ago… Hamlet So from that point to 35 years from now, how much more will English “suffer” ?

That is a good theory, but not necessarily a good change.

Dear Jay,

Wouldn’t you agree that a person’s view on how a language develops reflects their attitude towards life in general? I mean we could have the same discussion about a new technology. There are people claiming that the internet has a negative influence on children’s reading behaviour. ‘Children will read less due to the internet and subsequently they will not be able to learn the language as our generation did.’
Or you could even take the invention of the telephone. There were lots of people who were of the opinion that due to the telephone human communication and personal interaction will suffer.
Returning to our topic at hand I honestly can’t see how a language can suffer. It is true, English (which vocabulary, as you know, stems from the French, the Greek, the Latin, the German and Celtic languages) was spoken by a much smaller group of people some centries ago then it is now. The English used to live on their islands and their language was spoken only there. Then they decided to conquer other countries in many parts of the world and so other people started speaking the English language too. Don’t you think that back then there were many English people on the British isles who were afraid that their language was now suffering because people in remote parts of the world were starting speaking it?
It is true - the majority of all speakers of English, be it native speakers or people speaking English as a second language, speak a rather simple language. The majority of all people in many industrialized countries read a tabloid like ‘The Sun’ every day and watch soap operas and talk shows on TV. What kind of language are they exposed to? A rather simple one if not primitive. Yet, does this mean that the language itself is suffering? There are still enough sophisticated people who treat and use language differently.[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: Down hill skiing[YSaerTTEW443543]

Dear Torsten,
Indeed, shall I agree with you about the evolution of English language or the poor understating of the majority?

And coming to the conclusion that the whole thing is about how one perceives our society in conjunct of a variety of events all together… Is the computers bad? Yes, it! Is the television bad? Is the media bad? Yes, it is! But I guess we all have to learn how to live with them as well as to give them up, by having a daily recycle of information, just as a full blossom early starting.

Thank you!

Dear Jay,

Many thanks for you sharing your views with me on this open forum. Could you please explain why you think that computers and new media like the internet are bad? Without computers and the internet the two of us would have never met. Furthermore, Alan could have never published all his unique materials. So, wouldn’t you agree that there are advantages and disatvantages in any situation?[YSaerTTEW443543]

TOEIC listening, photographs: Preparing to hit the ball[YSaerTTEW443543]

Dear Tosten,

Sorry for not promptly reply. The thing is, my computer has broken, so I’m using libraries and college computers only. Hopefully, sometime this week I will get it back.

That how you put it, and I agree with that too:

It is true - the majority of all speakers of English, be it native speakers or people speaking English as a second language, speak a rather simple language. The majority of all people in many industrialized countries read a tabloid like ‘The Sun’ every day and watch soap operas and talk shows on TV. What kind of language are they exposed to? A rather simple one if not primitive. ===============================================
That is exactly how, and for what, TVs are controlling and influencing society through the Media. It is true, they could do much better but the majority (TVs and media) are not.

Yes, for sure! There are good things about technology but we can’t forget that it is creating a whole new Cyber culture and so far nobody knows really what will happen as result of it. I mean, good things like you and some others are developing is great. But again, according to the some statistics, for the last ten years, kids has never been exposed to nudity as well as to violence as they are now.

Anyways, lets try to keep up the good work… That is really all we can do. :wink: