The cane toad is a large (1.8 kg) amphibian species native to Central and South America. It was deliberately introduced to Australia in 1935 with the expectation that it would protect farmers’ crops by eating harmful insects. Unfortunately, the toad multiplied rapidly, and a large cane toad population now threatens small native animals that are not pests. Several measures have been proposed to stop the spread of the cane toad in Australia.
One way to prevent the spread of the toad would be to build a national fence. A fence that blocks the advance of the toads will prevent them from moving into those parts of Australia that they have not yet colonized. This approach has been used before: a national fence was erected in the early part of the twentieth century to prevent the spread of rabbits, another animal species that was introduced in Australia from abroad and had a harmful impact on its native ecosystems.
Second, the toads could be captured and destroyed by volunteers. Cane toads can easily be caught in simple traps and can even be captured by hand. Young toads and cane toad eggs are even easier to gather and destroy,since they are restricted to the water. If the Australian government were to organize a campaign among Australian citizens to join forces to destroy the toads, the collective effort might stop the toad from spreading.
Third, researchers are developing a disease-causing virus to control the cane toad populations. This virus will be specially designed: although it will be able to infect a number of reptile and amphibian species, it will not harm most of the infected species; it will specifically harm only the cane toads. The virus will control the population of cane toads by preventing them from maturing and reproducing.
The reading and the lecture discuss about several measures that have been suggested to stop the spread of the cane toad in Australia. The reading passage presents the beneficial aspects of thses measures. However, the lecturer casts doubt on each of the points mentioned in the reading and states that theses measures would be unsuccessfull or cause an environmental damage.
To begin with, the reading suggests that building a national fence could prevent the spread of the cane toads in the several parts of Australia where they have not yet colonized. However, the lecturer points out that young toads and their eggs can reach from one area to another by streams and rivers, which traveling between many areas. Furthermore, the national fence would not spread their spreading too as only few toads need to get to the new area in order to thrive and prosper their species. Tus, this appears to be contradiction to the information asserted in the passage.
In addition, the reading claims that the collective efforts of capturing and destroying the toags and their eggs might stop its spread. However, the lecturer mentions that volunteers in thses efforts can probably destroy some species of frogs that look like young toads. Volunteers are not trained so they would not be able to distinguished the frongs from toads especially young toads. This may kill the species of frogs and make them endangered species. Thus, it directly challenges the assertion stated in the reading.
Last but not least, the reading suggests the use of virus to prevent the cane toads from maturing and reproducing. However, the lecturer argues that it can cause some dangerous consequences in other nation. The infected reptiles and amphibians species could be introduced in other contries such as America by researchers and pest collectors. The virus from these species can infect the native species of toads in America. The cane toad is native to america and if its species gets destroyed from the virus, it would affect the ecological system of America and cause some serious problems. Thus, this disputes the point made in the reading.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
In order to become financially responsible adults, children should learn to manage their own money at young age.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Money is a significant part of life because it helps us to fulfill our needs and enjoy our lives. When we are children, we do not realize the importance of managing our financial resources. However, when we get mature and start working, we understand its necessity in our lives. In order to make their kids financially resposible adults, parents use several ways and teach them manage their own money at young age. Some people do not feel that it is right to ask kids as they are too small for this responsibility. However, I strongly believe that it is the right approcah to make children financially responsible adults. I feel this way because it help kids understand how difficult it is to earn money, and saving money is very difficult than spending it.
To begin with, people work work hard to earn money but kids do not realize that at this age. Some people study for years to get a high pay job while others do labour jobs. Which ever approch they use to earn money, it asks a lot of efforts and time. However, children would probably do not understand this as they get money so easily from their parents. If parents make them to manage their pocket money, it would help them understand the importance of money, and make them a resposible adult in using money.
For example, my parents tought me how to use money efficiently and how to save it from my childhood. It has helped me a lot when I moved in my new appartment away from my parents and started living on my own earning. If I did not learn it as a child, it would be very difficult for me use my money efficiently.
In addition, when kids learn managing their money from childhood, it make them responsible at spending it. This would help them to turn in a financially resposible adult. For example, as I learned managing my pocket money when I was a kid, I never have to ask my friends and family for money. I know that I have to pay rents, bills and other expenses from my earning. I manage it wisely that I have to borrow money from others. This has made me look responsible and respectable in my family.
To sum it up, even though some people feel that is not right to ask kids to learn to manage the money at this age, I believe that it is a good prcatice to prepare your kids to use their money effectively from their childhood as it help them understand earning requires a lot of efforts and make them resposible and respectable in their family.
TOEFL listening lectures: Why does the lecturer mention Charles Darwin?